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JavaおよびServletを使用したワンクリック通話

サーフィンするくらい簡単にエンドユーザーが連絡を取れるようにしたいですって? 今日はあなたのラッキーデーです!

Let's go over the steps necessary to implement click-to-call in a Java and Servlets application.

クリック トゥー コール

  1. Webサイトの訪問者は電話番号をWebフォームに送信する。
  2. Webアプリケーションは送信を受け取り、TwilioへのHTTPリクエストを開始して、Twilioに通話の発信を始めるよう指示する。
  3. Twilioはリクエストを受け取り、ユーザーの電話に発信を開始する。
  4. ユーザーが電話に出る。
  5. After the call connects, we provide TwiML instructions to connect the user to our sales or support teams.

私達が学ぶこと

This tutorial demonstrates how to initialize a call using the Twilio REST API and how to create a call using the TwiML Say verb.

さぁ、はじめましょう! 下のボタンをクリックして、チュートリアルの次の手順に移動してください。

Set up your environment

Before we create our click-to-call application, we need to set up our environment first.

Let's put our Twilio credentials in a place where our application can access them. For this tutorial, we'll store them in environment variables that our application can read.

# Twilio API credentials
export TWILIO_ACCOUNT_SID=ACXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
export TWILIO_AUTH_TOKEN=XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

# Twilio phone number
export TWILIO_NUMBER=+15552737123

Replace the Account_SID, Auth_Token, and Twilio_Number placeholder values with your unique values, which you can find in the Twilio Console. You can use an existing Twilio phone number or obtain a new number.

Twilio Console Credentials Location

        
        
        
        
        .env.example

        続いて、使いやすいWebフォームの作成について見ていきましょう。

        Webフォーム

        For our solution, we'll need a form where the user can enter a phone number.

        No need to overthink this step as the real goal is to POST the user's phone number to your controller.

        What information does this form need?

        • An input for the User's phone number
        • An input for the sales team phone number
        • 送信ボタン
              
              
              
              
              src/main/webapp/index.html

              「Submit」クリック後に新しいコンテンツをレンダリングする必要はないため、jQuery を使って Ajax 経由で POST アクションを実装することにしました。次に、それを見てみましょう。

              フォームを送信する

              To make the click-to-call feature more seamless, we used Ajax to send the form asynchronously.

              このコードは、jQueryを使用してこれを実装するひとつの方法を示しています。

              • ユーザーがフォーム要素を送信するのを待つ
              • Submit the form's data to our controller
              • 送信の成否についてユーザーに知らせる

              これはjQueryのajax()メソッドの一般的な実装です。 通話の接続時にレスポンスメッセージを返していることに注意してください。

                    
                    
                    
                    
                    src/main/webapp/js/clicktocall.js

                    AJAXでフォームを送信する

                    src/main/webapp/js/clicktocall.js

                    これでフロントエンドが出来上がったので、データの受信されるバックエンドを構築しましょう。 次のステップでその説明を始めます。

                    発信する

                    We'll use the client object with our Account SID and Auth Token to make an outgoing phone call which requires us to pass a From number, a To number and a URL Parameter that tells Twilio what to do after it connects the call to our user. In this case, Twilio needs to DIAL in the Agent once the call has been placed. We'll discuss this more in future steps.

                    The client object is essentially our Java REST API handler, which we could use to send SMSes (or a myriad of other things). For now, we just need it to get access to a CallFactory which is what we're going to use to create phone calls.

                          
                          
                          
                          
                          src/main/java/com/twilio/clicktocall/servlet/CallServlet.java

                          受信POSTで通話をトリガーする

                          src/main/java/com/twilio/clicktocall/servlet/CallServlet.java

                          A publicly exposed URL has some drawbacks. Next, we'll look at making sure we don't leak any sensitive data.

                          Twilioリクエストを検証する

                          Twilio makes a request to our application when the call is created using the REST API. That means we've got an endpoint that is publicly available for internet requests.

                          Since TwiML sometimes contains sensitive information such as phone numbers, we don't want just anybody accessing the TwiML.

                          Twilio リクエストバリデーター

                          With that in mind, let's first check if the request originated from Twilio before we return any TwiML. The validate method provides a mechanism to confirm that the request your application is receiving is coming from us. We use an instance of RequestValidator and call the validate method using the required parameters.

                                
                                
                                
                                
                                src/main/java/com/twilio/clicktocall/servlet/ConnectServlet.java

                                Twilioと通信していることを検証する

                                src/main/java/com/twilio/clicktocall/servlet/ConnectServlet.java

                                Now that we know a request originates from Twilio let's move on and look at the TwiML response we'll be sending.

                                TwiMLを生成する

                                TwiML is a set of verbs and nouns written in XML that Twilio reads as instructions.

                                In this case, our instructions inform Twilio to SAY something to the user and then DIAL the support agent's number so the customer can talk to him or her.

                                To make writing TwiML easier, the helper libraries have methods that generate TwiML for you. We use twilio-java to create a TwiML response that will instruct Twilio to SAY something.

                                      
                                      
                                      
                                      
                                      src/main/java/com/twilio/clicktocall/servlet/ConnectServlet.java

                                      正しいTwiMLを生成する

                                      src/main/java/com/twilio/clicktocall/servlet/ConnectServlet.java

                                      And with that, you've helped us get a working click-to-call form, ready to be integrated into your application.

                                      Testing your app locally

                                      Now you can run and test your Twilio app.

                                      However, you probably want to test it using a publicly available endpoint without having to go "public" with your app. The best option is to use ngrok.

                                      Note: For more information about running the application, see the Readme file in the app github repository.

                                      About ngrok

                                      ngrok generates a secure URL that forwards traffic to a port, usually 5000, on your localhost server. It allows you to run applications locally but make them a publicly available endpoint via secure tunneling. This allows you to test your application and do all the things you want your app to do but in a secure public space.

                                      ngrok is an executable (ngrok.exe) that you run on the command line or terminal.

                                      Setting Up ngrok

                                      Head over to ngrok's website, download the ngrok.zip file for your OS of choice, then unzip the file into an easily accessible location.

                                      For example, on Windows, you can place it in your \Users directory in \AppData\Roaming\<ngrok-directory-name>\ngrok.exe. Then, update your PATH environment variables to the location of the ngrok executable. On Linux or OSX, it's much easier (see the instructions on the ngrok site).

                                      And that's it.

                                      Accessing your app from an endpoint using ngrok

                                      Before you start ngrok, it might be a good idea to have your Twilio Console open.

                                      For Mac and Linux, open a terminal and run this command to start ngrok:

                                      $ ./ngrok http 4040
                                      

                                      On Windows, open a command prompt and run this command to start ngrok:

                                      $ Path-to-ngrok> ngrok http 4040
                                      

                                      Alternately, you can start ngrok using the following command:

                                      $ ngrok http 4040 -host-header="localhost:4040"
                                      

                                      The port number "4040" is arbitrary. If your local server is running on another port, replace "4040" in the command with the appropriate port number.

                                      This will start ngrok. A running instance of ngrok will appear in the terminal showing the local web interface (in this case http://127.0.0.1:4040) and the public URL (in this case, https://28dd499b.ngrok.io).

                                      ngrok-running

                                      The forwarding public URL needs to be set in the Twilio Console. In the Console, select the active phone number you set in the environment configuration file and enter the public URL from ngrok (shown above) in the "A Call Comes In" field under Voice & Fax. Be sure to select Webhook from the dropdown list.

                                      Each time you restart ngrok a new public URL will be generated. You will need to update this URL in the Console any time you restart ngrok.

                                      Twilio Console Webhook Setting

                                      You now have a publicly available endpoint for your app, so now you can take a look at your running app and enter the phone numbers using your ngrok address: https://xxxxxx.ngrok.io

                                      他に構築できるもの

                                      次はどこでしょうか?

                                      これは役に立ちましたか?

                                      Thanks for checking this tutorial out! Tweet to us @twilio and let us know what you're building!

                                      Agustin Camino Andrew Baker Paul Kamp Kat King Glenn Lea
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